University of Florida

Host Plants of Diaprepes Root Weevil and Their Implications to the Regulatory Process

S. E. Simpson1, H. N. Nigg2, and J. L. Knapp2

1Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Plant Industry
3027 Lake Alfred Road
Winter Haven, Florida 33881

2University of Florida
Citrus Research and Education Center
700 Experiment Station Road
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Agricultural agencies in the United States have been charged with a mission of preventing exotic pest infestations. This mission protects agriculture, the environment and our citizens from the damaging effects of plant pests. Accomplishment of this mission and satisfying the need for equitable trade is a major challenge. For almost four decades, Diaprepes root weevil has presented major challenges for Florida agriculture. From the early attempts to eradicate to present nursery quarantines, Diaprepes root weevil is a daunting and long term pest of many agronomic crops grown in Florida and the United States. Today, part of preventing the long distance spread of Diaprepes root weevil and a basic strategy used in regulatory pest control is the restriction of movement of known infested host plants.

Diaprepes root weevil is a polyphagus feeder (Simpson et. al., 1996) and has the potential to be a major pest to Florida's 6.11 billion dollar agricultural industry (Table 1). The 1998 cash value of Florida crops that are known hosts of Diaprepes is 4.2 billion dollars (Table 1). Presently, Diaprepes abbreviatus infests approximately 140,000 acres in twenty-two Florida counties. The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry has conducted regulatory actions for this pest since the first Diaprepes root weevil detection in Florida in 1964. The first detected weevil was an adult female collected on the foliage of a citrus tree growing in a small citrus nursery located in northwest Orange county. The regulatory process began at this point and continues today. Presently, the regulatory process restricts the movement of all plants where any life stage of the Diaprepes root weevil is detected.

In 1968 large numbers of adult and larval Diaprepes were detected and efforts were directed to quarantine and eradication of this imported and exotic pest (FDACS, 1968-1970). In 1968 approximately 5000 acres (3500 acres of citrus) were quarantined. In 1974 this quarantine area was extended to 32,640 acres (10,201 acres were citrus). During this period, larval quarantine treatments were aerial applications of granular heptachlor at 3 lb ai/ac, granular chlordane at 5 lb ai/ac with ground applications of dieldrin at 5 lb ai/ac. Adult quarantine treatments consisted of Sevin 80%WP at 10 day to two week intervals during adult emergence periods.

In 1976, eradication efforts were suspended due to the concern of potential environmental problems with the use of the persistent pesticides used for control of Diaprepes root weevil. Control and quarantine programs are still in effect today with major emphasis being directed to the development of control and regulatory procedures for all agronomic crops associated with Diaprepes root weevil. The presence or absence of Diaprepes at any given location is directly dependent on the efficacy of available detection technology. Present detection methods rely upon seeing the adults or a labor intensive larval survey in soil associated with host plants. These surveys are dependent upon the time of year when adults are active or even the physical location in Florida.

Diaprepes root weevil nursery quarantines are authorized by Florida Statutes 581 and Rule 5B-2.0025, Certification and Quarantine of Nursery Stock. This action regulates plant pests of limited distribution in Florida that require immediate action. All nursery stock infested or exposed to Diaprepes root weevil is quarantined and will not be eligible for certification until required treatments are conducted. A Diaprepes Compliance Agreement is established with the grower that prescribes regulatory treatment procedures or actions that must be complied with. Treatments are for adult, larva and egg control. If any life form of a Diaprepes root weevil is detected in a nursery, the nursery is quarantined. Presently, there are 179 nurseries located in 11 counties that are quarantined for the presence of Diaprepes. If a prospective buyer is interested in purchasing plants from a nursery and has concerns about Diaprepes existing in the nursery, the Diaprepes status of the nursery is available by contacting the Division of Plant Industry in Gainesville, Florida.

For regulatory purposes, host plants can be defined as plants suitable for support of any stage of the life cycle. The 293 host plants, listed in Table 2, have been observed supporting at least one stage of the life cycle of Diaprepes root weevil. Numerous host plants are considered tropical and are planted in exterior landscapes of South Florida and the Caribbean. These same plants are also used in interior landscapes for shopping malls, businesses, and residents throughout Florida. Dracena (Dracena marginata Lam.), a native of West Africa that has multiple slender stems with colorful clustered sword-shaped leaves, is planted as an exterior shrub in South Florida and also has numerous interior landscape uses, e.g., doctors' and dentists' offices. This plant supports all life stages of the Diaprepes root weevil.

Without adequate and reliable attractants, regulatory detection of Diaprepes is dependent upon host plant surveys. Previous attempts at development of traps and attractants for this weevil are not considered sufficient to recommend as a survey technique for regulatory purposes (Bevers et al., 1979; Schroeder and Jones,1983; Schroeder and Jones,1984). Host plants provide a source of needed sustenance, cover and concealment from predators, and locations for the female to deposit eggs. These basic behavioral characteristics which the host plant provides, enables us to visually detect the presence of adults and other life stages.

Genetic studies of nine geographically distant Florida populations indicate that D. abbreviatus has generally remained in the locality of their original introduction and have limited dispersal to new areas (Bas et al., 2000). The most likely means of spread of D. abbreviatus is on infected plant material. Adults are strong fliers but have been observed to fly relatively short distances. It should come as no surprise that Diaprepes root weevil is difficult to regulate. When an insect has almost 300 hosts (Table 2), many of which occur or are grown in Florida the regulatory picture is murky indeed. For instance pigeon pea is found in many of Florida's agriculture regions. Add all of the citrus varieties, holly, chinaberry, banana, avocado, various beans, a few palms, wax myrtle, guava, and a castor bean. These form a formidable list of life cycle hosts and partial life cycle hosts which occur in the wild and as ornamentals.

The regulatory process basically restricts the movement of host plants or plant parts which contain any life stage of Diaprepes root weevils.


References Cited

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2. Anonymous. 1909. Cocoa trees and grubs. J. Jamaica Agric. Soc. 13:125-127.

3. Anonymous. 1933. Service and regulatory announcements, July-Sept. 1933. USDA B.P.Q., S.R.A. No. 116:197-243. Washington, DC.

4. Ballou, H. A. 1912. Insect pests of the Lesser Antilles. Imp. Dept. Agric. Barbados, W. I. Pamphlet Ser. 71:66-69.

5. Bas, B., Z. Dalkilic, T. L. Peever, H. N. Nigg, S. E. Simpson, F. G. Gmitter, Jr.,and R. C. Adair. 2000. Genetic relationships among Florida Diaprepes abbreviatus L.(Coleoptera:Curculionidae) populations. J. Econ. Entomol. (In press)

6. Beavers, J. B., J. M. Stanley, H. R. Agee, and S. A. Lovestrand. 1979. Diaprepes abbreviatus response to light traps in field and cage tests. Fla. Entomol. 62:136-139.

7. Cassani, J. R. 1986. Arthropods on Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), in south Florida. Fla. Entomol. 69:184-196.

8. Earle, F. S. 1928. Insect and other pests of sugar cane. Chap. 6, P. 162-188. In Sugarcane and Its Culture. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 355.

9. Fennah, R. G. 1938. Citrus pests investigations. Rep. Agric. Dept. Dominica. 1937:27-28.

10. Fennah, R. G. 1942. The Citrus Pests Investigation in the Windward and Leeward Islands. British West Indies. Agric. Advisory Dept., Imp. Coll. Trop. Agric. Trinidad, B.W.I. pp. 1-67.

11. Fennah, R. G. 1947. The insect pests of food crops in the Lesser Antilles. Dept. Agric. Windward Islands, St. George, Granada, B.W.I. p. 17-18.

12. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. Diaprepes abbreviatus specimen reports, 1964-1995. Gainesville, Florida.

13. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. Twenty- Eight Biennial Report, 1968-1970. Gainesville, Florida.

14. Griffith, R. J. 1975. The West Indian sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hortic. Soc. 88:87-90.

15. Herbaugh, L. L. and E. C. Mosteller. 1980. Ovicidal capacity of various chemicals for control of West Indian sugarcane root borer on Dracaena marginata, Plymouth, FL, 1979 Diaprepes abbreviatus. Insecticide Acaricide Tests 5:170-172.

16. Hutson, J. C. 1917. Insect notes. Some weevils of the genus Diaprepes in the West Indies. The Agric. News 16(395):186-187.

17. Jackson, G. C. 1963. Diaprepes abbreviata Linnaeus on Phoenix dactylifera L. J. Agric. Univ. P. R. 47:290.

18. Jones, T. H. 1915. The sugarcane weevil rootborer (Diaprepes sprengleri Linn.). Insular Exp. Stn. (Rio Piedras, P.R.) Bull. 14:1-9, 11.

19. Leonard, M. D. 1932. Insect conditions in Puerto Rico during the fiscal year July 1930 thru June 1931. J. Dept. Agric. P. R. 16:121-144.

20. Leonard, M. D. 1933. Notes on insect conditions in Puerto Rico for the fiscal year July 1931 thru June 1932. J. Dept. Agric. P. R. 17:97-137.

21. Martorell, L. F. 1945. A survey of the forest insects of Puerto Rico. Part II. J. Agric., Univ. of P.R. 29:457-481.

22. Myers, J. G. 1931. A preliminary report on an investigation into the biological control of West Indian insect pests. Empire Marketing Board 42:173.

23. Nowell, W. 1912. Plant pests and diseases. Rep. Local Dept. Agric., Barbados. 1911-1912:50-51.

24. Oramas, D., J. Rodriguez and A. L. Gonzalez. 1990. Effect on yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) of soil spray and seed treatment with the nematicide-insecticide oxamyl L, and soil treatments with phenamiphos 15G. J. Agric., Univ. of P.R. 74:103-110.

25. Ramos, J. A. 1946. The insects of Mona Island (West Indies). J. Agric. Univ. of P. R. 30:1-74.

26. Ritchie, A. H. 1916-1917. Annual Report of the Entomologist Annu. Rep. Dept. Agric. Jamaica. p. 30.

27. Schroeder, W. J., R. A. Hamlen and J. B. Beavers. 1979. Survival of Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae on selected native and ornamental Florida plants. Fla. Entomol. 62:309-312.

28. Schroeder, W. J., and I. F. Jones. 1983. Capture of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in traps: effects of location in a citrus tree and wick material for release of attractant. J. Econ. Entomol. 76:1312-1314.

29. Schroeder, W. J., and I. F. Jones. 1984. A new trap for capturing Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Entomol. 67:312-314.

30. Shapiro, J. P. and T. R. Gottwald. 1995. Resistance of eight cultivars of citrus rootstock to a larval root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 88:148-154.

31. Simpson, S. E., H. N. Nigg, N. C. Coile and R. A. Adair 1996. Diaprepesabbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Host plant associations. Environ. Entomol. 25:333-349.

32. Skeete, C. C. 1928. Entomological Work. Rep. Dept. Agric., Barbados. 1926-1927. p. 14.

33. Taylor, C. B. 1898. Injurious insects. Beetle grub destructive to orange trees. J. Jamaica Agric. Soc. 2:11-14.

34. Tucker, R.W.E. 1939. The control of Diaprepes abbreviatus L. and Lachnosterna (Phytalus) Smithi, Arrow, in Barbados surveyed over a period of eleven years. Dept. Sci. and Agric., Barbados 8:8-18.

35. Watson, N. B. 1904. The root-borer of sugar-cane (Diaprepes abbreviatus). West Indian Bull. 4:37-47.

36. Wolcott, G. N. 1933. The changed status of some insects in Puerto Rico. J. Dept. Agric. P. R. 17:265-270.

37. Wolcott, G. N. 1936. The life history of Diaprepes abbreviatus at Rio Piedras, P. R. J. Agric., Univ. of P. R. 20:883-914.

38. Wolcott, G. N. 1952. Control of the soil inhabiting grubs of Puerto Rico. J. Agric., Univ. of P. R. 34:333-337.

39. Woodruff, R. E. 1968. The present status of a West Indian weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)) in Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. Div. Plant Ind. Entomol. No. 77. p. 4.


Table 1. Florida farm cash receipts for crops that are known hosts of Diaprepes root weevil.1

Commodity Cash Receipts 1997
Citrus (oranges and grapefruit) $1,376,228,000
Environmental Horticulture (foliage and woody ornamental) $523,830,000
Field Crops (corn, cotton, sugarcane, and tobacco) $649,387,000
Fruits and Nuts (avocado, mango and others) $57,186,000
Vegetables, Melons, Berries (cabbage, carrots, cucumber, and tomato) $1,594,564,000
Total $4,201,195,000.00
Total farm cash receipts for all agricultural products, 1997 $6,119,914,000.00

1Taken from Florida Agricultural Facts, 1998 Edition, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.


Table 2. Host plants associated with Diaprepes root weevil.

Scientific name Common name Detection type and locationz
zLegend at end of table.
Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (synonym: Hibiscus esculentus) Okra AC [7]
Acacia sp. Acacia AC [12]
Acer rubrum L. Red maple AC [7]
Acnistus arborescens Schlecht. Galán arbóreo AF [8]
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr. Bael AF [34]
Aeglopsis chevalieri Swingle Chevalier's aeglopsis AF [34]
Afraegle gabonensis (Swingle)Engl. Gabon powder flask AF [34]
Afraegle paniculata (Schurn.) Engl. Nigerian powder flask AF [34]
Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth. Amor platónice, woman's tongue AF [8]
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (synonym: Aloe barbadensis)a Aloe L [9]
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Ragweed AC [12]
Amyris balsamifera L. Sea amyris AF [34]
Andira inermis (W. Wright) Kunth ex DC. (synonym: Andira jamaicensis) Moca, coffee shade AF [8, 11]
Apium graveolens L. Celery AF [33]
Arachis hypogaea L. Ground nut, peanut AF, AC, ED, L [2, 6, 11]
Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft apio, apio tuberoso, arracacha AF, ED, L [35]
Ardisia crenata Simsa Coralberry, coral ardisia L [9]
Ardisia crispa (Thunb.) A. DC. Christmas berry AC [7]
Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) Bojer (synonym: A. speciosa) Cephalic vine, wooly morning glory, elephant climber AF, ED [11]
Atalantia sp. Atalantia AF [34]
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem tree AC [12]
Baccharis halimifolia L. Groundsel bush, salt bush AC [7]
Bauhinia purpurea L. Orchid tree AC [12]
Bauhinia sp. Orchid tree AC, AF [12]
Bauhinia variegata L. Orchid tree AC [12]
Bischofia javanica Blume Bishop's wood, toog AC [12]
Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus (synonym: Andropogon pertusus) Pitted bluestem L [2]
Brassica sp. Mustard AF [17]
Brysonima spicata (Cav.) Kunth Maricao AF
Bucida buceras L. Black-olive, oxhorn bucida AF, AC [12]
Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. Gumbo limbo AF, AC [34]
Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) HBK Maricao AF [34]
Caesalpinia mexicana A. Gray Caesalpinia AC [12]
Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth (synonym: Cajanus indicus) Pigeon pea, gondul AF, AC [13, 5, 2]
Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Stapf (synonym: Callistemon lanceolatus) Lemon bottlebrush AC [12]
Calophyllum sp. Calophyllum AF [12]
Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. Sword bean, jack bean AF [32]
Capsicum annuum L. Pepper AC, L [1, 12]
Carica papaya L. papaya AF, L, ED [37]
Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet Pignut hickory AC [7]
Carya illinoinensis (Wagemh.) K. Koch Pecan AC [12]
Casimiroa edulis La Llave White sapote AF [34]
Casimiroa tetrameria Millsp. Wooly white sapote AF [34]
Cassia sp. (This genus has had many other genera split off, including: Chamaecrista, Senna) Cassia AC [12]
Cedrela odorata L. (synonym: Cedrela mexicana) Cedro espanol, cigar-box cedar AF [8]
Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. Ceiba, kapok AF [8, 11]
Celtis laevigata Willd. Sugarberry, hackberry AC [7, 12]
Centrosema pubesens Benth. Butterfly-pea AF [10]
Cestrum diurnum L. Day jasmine, day cestrum AC [12]
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens H. Wendl. Areca palm, butterfly palm AC [12]
Chrysobalanus icaco L. Cocoplum, icaco AF, AC [8, 10]
Chrysophyllum cainito L. Star apple, caimito AF [8]
Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. Satin leaf AC, AF [34]
Citropsis gilletiana Swingle & M. Kellerman Gillet's cherry orange AF [34]
Citrus amblycarpa Ochse Nasnaran mandarin AF [34]
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Giant Key lime AF [34]
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Citrus of Moi lime AF [34]
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Persian lime AF [34]
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle 'Davao' Lime AF [34]
Citrus aurantifolia Alemow (synonym: Citrus macrophylla) L [31]
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Lime AF, AC, ED, L [12, 14]
Citrus aurantium L. 'Bouquet' Sour orange AF [34]
Citrus aurantium L. 'Chinotto' Sour orange AF [34]
Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit. 'Bergamont' Bergamot AF [34]
Citrus depressa Hay Shekwasha mandarin AF [34]
Citrus grandis L. Osbeck Pummelo AC [12]
Citrus grandis L. X Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. Pummelo x trifoliate orange (2N) L [31]
Citrus grandis L. X Poncirus trifoliata L. Pummelo x trifoliate orange (4N) L [31]
Citrus hystrix DC. Caffre lime AF [34]
Citrus ichangensis (Swing.) Ichang papeda AF [34]
Citrus jambhiri Lushington hybrid Milam lemon L [9]
Citrus jambhiri 'Rough Lemon' Rough lemon L [9]
Citrus limettioides Tan 'Palestine' Sweet lime AF [34]
Citrus limettioides Tan Sweet lime AF [34]
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. 'Bearss' Lemon AF [34]
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. 'Baboon' Lemon AF [34]
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. 'Ponderosa' Lemon AF [34]
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. 'Cameron Highlands' Lemon AF [34]
Citrus macroptera Montr. Melanesian papeda AF [34]
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Pummelo AF [34]
Citrus medica L. 'Acida' Acid citron L [15]
Citrus medica L. 'Etrog' Etrog citron AF [34]
Citrus medica L. var. Sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle Buddha's hand AF [34]
Citrus meyeri Tan. Meyer lemon AF [34]
Citrus obovoidea Hort. ex Takahashi Kinkoji AF [34]
Citrus reticulata Tangerine, mandarin AF [12]
Citrus reticulata 'Sunburst' Mandarin, tangerine AF, AC [12]
Citrus reticulata X Citrus x paradisi Orlando tangelo AC [12]
Citrus reticulata 'Silver Hill' Satsuma AF [34]
Citrus reticulata Blanco 'Cleopatra' Cleopatra mandarin L [31]
Citrus reticulata 'Robinson' Mandarin, tangerine AC [12]
Citrus reticulata hybrid Blanco 'Murcott' Murcott mandarin AC [12]
Citrus reticulata hybrid 'Temple' Temple mandarin AC [12]
Citrus sinensis 'Valencia' Valencia sweet orange AC [12]
Citrus sinensis 'Hamlin' Hamlin sweet orange AF, AC [12]
Citrus sinensis 'Parson Brown' Parson Brown sweet orange AC [12]
Citrus sinensis hybrid 'Ambersweet' [(C. reticulata 'Clementine' X Citrus x tangelo 'Orlando') X Citrus sinensis] Hybrid orange AC [12]
Citrus sinensis cultivar Navel orange AF, AC [12]
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck Orange L [16]
Citrus sp. Citrus AC, ED, L [1, 10]
Citrus tachibana (Mak.) Tan Tachibana mandarin AF [34]
Citrus tachibana (Mak.) Tan Kinokuni mandarin AF [34]
Citrus x paradisi 'Marsh' A seedless grapefruit, Marsh grapefruit AF [12]
Citrus x limonia Osbeck 'Volkamer' Lemon AF [34]
Citrus x paradisi Grapefruit AF, ED, L [1]
Citrus x paradisi Macfad. cultivar Red grapefruit AF, AC, ED, L [12]
Citrus x paradisi Madfad. 'McCarty' McCarty grapefruit AF [34]
Citrus x limonia Osbeck Rangpur lime AF [34]
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels Wampee AF [34]
Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze Tube-flower, turk's turban AC [7]
Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. Sea grape AF, AC [8, 12]
Coffea arabica L. Coffee AF [11]
Conocarpus erectus L. variety sericeus Fors. ex DC. Silver buttonwood AF, AC [12]
Conocarpus erectus L. Botoncillo, buttonwood, green buttonwood AF, AC [12, 8]
Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken Capá prieto, laurel negro AF [8]
Cordia lineata (L.) Roem. & Schult. (synonym: C. corymbosa) None AF [10]
Cordia sebestena L. Geiger tree AC [11]
Crotalaria sp. Rattlebox L [33]
Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A.Rich.) Radlk. Carrotwood AF, AC [12]
Cupressus sempervirens L. Italian cypress AC [7]
Cyperus sp. Nut grass L [33]
Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf. Royal poinciana AF [8]
Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC. A beggarweed AC [7]
Dimocarpus longan Lour. (synonym: Euphoria longan) Longan AF, AC [12]
Dioscorea batatas Decne. Yam AF [17]
Dioscorea x cayenensis Lam. (synonym: Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) Yellow yam AC, L [17, 18]
Diospyros digyna Jacq. (synonym: Diospyros ebenaster Hort.) Black sapote AF, AC [12]
Diospyros sp. Wild persimmon AC [7]
Diospyrus virginiana L. Wild or common persimmon AC, L [9, 12]
Dracaena cincta Bak. `Tricolor' (synonym: Dracaena marginata tricolor) Dracaena rainbow ED, L [12]
Dracaena compacta Schott, Nyman & Kotschy A dracaena ED, L [12]
Dracaena deremensis Engl. 'Janet Craig' Janet Craig dracaena AC [12]
Dracaena marginata Lam. Dragon tree AF, AC, ED, L [19, 12]
Dracaena sanderiana Hort. Sander ex M.T. Mast Ribbon plant, Belgian evergreen AC, L [12]
Eremocitrus glauca (Lindl.) Swing. Lime, Australian desert AF [34]
Eremocitrus hybrid Eremocitrus X Skekwasha mandarin AF [34]
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Loquat AF, AC [12]
Erythrina berteroana Urban Bucare, machete, coralillo AF [8]
Erythrina folkersii Krukoff & Moldenke Gallito AF [32]
Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O. F. Cook Bucare, mountain immortelle AF [8]
Eugenia uniflora L. Surinam-cherry AC, AF, ED, L [12]
Feijoa sellowiana O. Berg Pineapple guava AC, AF [7]
Ficus benjamina L. Weeping fig AC [12]
Ficus citrifolia P. Miller (synonym: Ficus laevigata) Short-leaved fig, jagüey ED [20]
Ficus retusa L. Cuban laurel, Indian laurel fig AC [12]
Ficus sp. Wild fig ED [1]
Ficus stahlii Warb. Jagüey AF [8]
Fortunella crassifolia Swingle Meiwa kumquat AF [34]
Fortunella japonica (Thunb.) Swingle 'Marumi' Round kumquat AF [34]
Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle 'Centennial' Oval kumquat AF [34]
Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle 'Nagami' Oval kumquat AF [34]
Fortunella polyandra (Ridl.) Tan Tropical kumquat AF [34]
Fortunella sp. Kumquat AC [12]
Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex (synonym: Gliricidia maculata) Pea tree, madre de cacao, Nicaraguan cocoa-shade AF [8, 17]
Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa Toothpick glycosmis AF [34]
Gossypium spp. Cotton AC, AF [17, 33]
Guaiacum officinale L. Lignum-vitae, guayacan AF [8]
Guapira fragrans (Dum.-Cours.) Little (synonyms: Pisonia fragrans; Torrubia fragrans) Corcho prieto AF [8]
Guarea trichilioides L. Guaraguao AF [8]
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Guácima, bastard cedar, white elm AF [8]
Haematoxylum campechianum L. Bloodwood tree AF [8]
Hemerocallis sp. Day-lily AC [7]
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Hibiscus, Chinese hibiscus AC [12]
Hoya carnosa (L. f.) R.Br. Wax plant L [9]
Ilex syderoxyloides (Sw.) Griseb. Gongoli AF [8]
Ilex cassine L. Dahoon holly AC, AF [12]
Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxt. 'Burfordii' Burford holly AC [12]
Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxt. Chinese holly AC [7]
Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray Gallberry AC [7]
Ilex sp. Holly AC [12]
Ilex vomitoria Ait. Yaupon holly AC [7]
Ilex x attenuata Ashe 'East Palatka' Hybrid holly AC, AF [7]
Illicium anisatum L. Anise AC [7]
Indigofera hirsuta L. Hairy indigo AF [7]
Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. Guamá, palal, paternillo AF [8]
Inga spuria Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (synonym: Inga vera) Guaba, cuajinicuil AF [8]
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Sweet potato AF, AC, ED, L [2, 11, 13]
Jatropha curcas L. Physic nut AF [17]
Juniperus conferta Parl. Shore juniper L [9]
Juniperus virginiana L Red-cedar, eastern red-cedar AC, L [9, 12]
Juniperus x media Van Melle 'Pfitzeriana' (synonym: Juniperus chinensis variety pfitzeriana) Pfitzer juniper AC [7]
Juniperus x media Van Melle 'Hetzii' (synonym: Juniperus chinensis variety hetzi) Hetz juniper, Hetz blue juniper AC [7]
Kallstroemia maxima (L.) Hook & Arn. Caltrop AC, AF [33]
Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A. C. Small Golden rain tree AC [12]
Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet (synonym: Dolichos lablab) Bonavist bean, hyacinth bean AF, AC [13, 11]
Lagerstrocmia speciosa (L.) Pers. Queen's crape-myrtle AF [8]
Lagerstroemia indica L. Crape-myrtle AC [7]
Limonia acidissima L. Wood apple AF [34]
Liriope sp. Lilyturf L [9]
Lonchocarpus domingensis (Turp.) DC. Genogeno, lancepod AF [8]
Lonchocarpus latifolius (Willd.) DC. Hediondo, lancepod AF [8]
Magnolia virginiana L. Sweet-bay AC [7]
Mangifera indica L. Mango AF, ED [11]
Manihot esculenta Cranz Yuca, cassava, manioc, tapioca AC, L [1, 21, 17]
Manilkara roxburghiana (Wight) Dubard Mimusops AC [12]
Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen Sapodilla AF, AC [34]
Maranta leuconeura E. Morr. Prayer plant L [5]
Melia azedarach L. Chinaberry tree AC [7]
Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. Quenepa, Spanish lime, genip AF [8, 12]
Microcitrus australasica (F.J. Muel.) Swingle Australian finger lime AF [34]
Microcitrus australis (Planch.) Swingle Australian round lime AF [34]
Microcitrus papuana H. F. Winters New Guinea lime AF [34]
Mimosa ceratonia L. Zarza AF [10]
Montezuma speciosissima Mocino & Sessé ex DC. Maga AF [8]
Mucuna deeringiana (Bort.) Merr. Velvet bean, Bengal bean, Florida velvet bean AF [33]
Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel Curry leaf AF [34]
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack Orange jasmine AF, AC [34]
Musa sp. Banana AF [33]
Myrcianthes simpsonii (Small) K. A. Wils. (synonym: Eugenia simpsoni) Simpson's stopper AF, AC [34]
Myrica cerifera L. Wax-myrtle AC [7]
Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicholson Hesperethusa AF [34]
Nicotiana tabacum L. Tobacco AC [6]
Octoea portoricensis Mez -- AF [8]
Pamburus missionis (Wight) Swingle Pamburas AF [34]
Panicum maximum Jacq. Guineagrass ED [1]
Passiflora incarnata L. Maypop AC [7]
Passiflora sp. Passionfruit AF [22]
Persea americana Mill. Avocado, aguacate AF [10]
Persea americana Mill. variety americana (synonym: Persea gratissima) Avocado, aguacate AF [8, 17]
Phaseolus lunatus L. Lima bean, haba lima L [1]
Phaseolus sp. Bean AC [7]
Phaseolus sp. String bean AC [23]
Phaseolus vulgaris L. String bean, kidney bean, navy bean, etc. AF, L [33]
Phoenix dactylifera L. Date palm AF [24]
Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien Pygmy date palm AC [12]
Pimenta racemosa (Miller) J.W. Moore (synonym: Amomis caryophyllata) Bay-rum tree AF [8, 10]
Piper sp. Pepper (black) L [1]
Pithcellobium sp.   L [2, 11]
Pithcellobium unguis-cati (L.) Benth. Bread and cheese, catclaw, black Jessie L [33]
Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. f. Chinese pittosporum AC [7]
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco (synonym: Thuja orientalis) Oriental arborvitae AC [12]
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. 'Flying Dragon' X Citrus grandis 'Nakorn' ('Nakorn' probably should be: 'Kao Pan') 'Flying Dragon' x 'Nakorn' L [31]
Pongamia Pinnata (L.) Pierre Pongam AF, AC [12]
Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Ait. Carolina cherry-laurel AC [12]
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Peach AC [7]
Prunus sp. Wild cherry AC [7]
Psidium guajava L. Common guava, guayaba AF [8, 12]
Psidium littorale Raddi (synonym: Psidium cattleianum) Cattley guava AC [12]
Psidium sp. Guava AF, AC [11, 17]
Pueraria Montana (Lour.) Merr. variety lobata (Willd.) Maesen& S. Almeida (synonym: Pueraria thunbergiana) Kudzu vine AC [7]
Pyrus communis L. Pear AC [7]
Quercus laurifolla Michaux Swamp laurel oak AC [7]
Quercus virginiana Mill. Live oak AF, AC [7]
Rhizophora mangle L. Mangrove, red mangrove AF, AC [12]
Rhus copallina L. Winged sumac AC [7]
Ricinus communis L. Castor-bean, palma-christi AF [1,17 ]
Rosa spp. Rose AC [7]
Roystonea regia (Kunth) Cook Royal palm AC [12]
Rubus argutus Link (synonym: Rubus betulifolius) Blackberry AC [7, 12]
Saccharum officinarum L. Sugarcane AF, AC, ED, L [4, 11, 12, 13]
Salix humboldtiana L. Humboldt's willow AF [32]
Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) Harms Schefflera AF, L [7, 12]
Schefflera arboricola (Hay.) Kanehira Dwarf schefflera AC [12]
Schefflera elegantissima (Vietch)Lowry & Frodin (synonym: Dizygotheca elegantissima) False aralia L [9]
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian pepper tree AF [25]
Schrankia leptocarpa DC. (synonym: Leptoglottis portoricensis) Zarzilla AF [8]
Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby (synonyms: Cassia obtusifolia; C. tora) Sicklepod, coffeeweed AF [10]
Senna surattensis Burm. f. A senna AC [12]
Severinia buxifolia (Poiret) Ten. Chinese box orange AF [34]
Severinia disticha (Blanco) Swingle Philippine box orange AF [34]
Solanum melongena L. Eggplant AC, AF, L [1, 12, 17]
Solanum tuberosum L. Potato AF [12]
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. bicolor cultivars Guinea corn AF, AC, ED, L [2, 4, 11, 17]
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. bicolor (synonym: Sorghum vulgare) Sorghum AF, ED, L [11, 10, 17, 1]
Spondias mombin L. Jobo AF, AC, ED [8, 11]
Spondias mombin L. (synonym: S. lutea) Yellow mombin, lobo AF, L [10]
Spondias purpurea L. Hog plum AF [33]
Swietenia macrophylla King Caoba de Honduras, Honduras mahogany AF [8]
Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. Mahogany AF, AC, L [8, 12, 26]
Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr. Tabog AF [34]
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Rose apple AF [12]
Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. f. ex S. Moore (synonym: Tabebuia argentea) Silver trumpet tree AC [12]
Tamarindus indica L. Tamarind, tamarindo, Indian date AF [12]
Tephrosia candida DC.   AF [27]
Terminalia catappa L. Tropical-almond AF, AC [8, 28]
Theobroma cacao L. Cacao, cocoa L [29]
Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wilson Myrtle lime AF [34]
Triplaris sp. Triplaria AF [8]
Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. Chinese elm AC [7]
Urena lobata L. Caesar weed, Congo jute L [33]
Veitchia merrillii (Becc.) H.E. Moore Adonidia palm, Christmas palm L [12]
Vigna adenantha (G.F.W. Meyer) Marechal, Mascherpa & Stanier (synonym: Phaseolus adenantha) Wild bean, habichuela cimarrona AF [10]
X Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands Calamondin AF [34]
X Citroncirus Citrangequat hybrid AF [34]
X Citroncirus webberi J. Ingram& H.E. Moore `Troyer' (Citrus sinensis X Poncirus trifoliata) Carrizo citrange L [31]
X Citroncirus `Swingle' (Citrus x paradisi X Poncirus trifoliata) Swingle citrumelo L [31]
Ximenia americana L. Hog plum AF [33]
Zanthoxylum americanum P. Mill Toothache tree AC [12]
Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam. Espino rubial, prickly yellow AF [8]
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. Prickly ash, Hercules'-club AC [7]
Zanthoxylum fagara (L.) Sarg Prickly ash AF [34]
Zea mays L. Maize, corn, Indian corn AF, AC, ED, L [1, 2, 13, 30, 35, 2, 1, 10]
AC, adult collection; AF, adult feeding observed; ED, egg masses observed on plant; L, larvae observed on plant roots.
1, Wolcott 1936; 2, Tucker 1939; 3, Anonymous 1909; 4, Nowell 1912; 5, Earle 1928; 6, Myers 1931; 7, Griffith 1975; 8, Martorell 1945; 9, Schroeder et al, 1979; 10, Jones 1915; 11, Watson 1904; 12, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 1964--1994; 13, Ballou 1912; 14, Hutson 1917; 15, Skeete 1928; 16, Taylor 1898; 17, Feenah 1947; 18, Oramas et al, 1990; 19, Herbaugh and Mosteller 1980; 20, Leonard 1933; 21, Anonymous 1933; 22, Woodruff 1968; 23, Leonard 1932; 24, Jackson 1963; 25, Cassani 1986; 26, Wolcott 1952; 27, Feenah 1938; 28, Ramos 1946; 29, Anonymous 1908; 30, Ritchie 1916--1917; 31, Shapiro and Gottwald 1995; 32, Wolcott 1933; 33, Fennah 1942; 34, Simpson et al 1996, 35, Franqui, R., 1997, personal communication, 36, Osborn, L., 1997, personal communication, 37, Pena, J., 1999, personal communication.